- Peak Demand Reduction Rate of 20% Achieved through Demand Response Aimed at Multiple Buildings
The Yokohama Smart City Project (YSCP) implemented the operation of verification experiments into Demand Response (DR) using an Integrated BEMS in January 2013 and between July and September of the same year, and achieved a peak demand reduction rate that exceeded 20% at its greatest. The DR experiments carried out up until summer 2013 employed a financial incentive award system for consumers in accordance with the amount of power reduced. Based on the results of this, from winter 2013 a DR project in which the required amount of power reduction was initially indicated and then a bidding style of DR was commenced, in which consumers declared (bid) the amount of power reduction that were capable of achieving and the cost of the incentives that they would require to do this, and the successful bids were selected from the cheaper of the offers.
- Reducing Demand During Peak Periods by Approximately 30% with Smart BEMS and FEMS
Verification experiments into Demand Response (DR) aimed at maximizing the amount of electricity demand that can be reduced during peak periods by office and commercial buildings are underway as part of the Yokohama Smart City Project (YSCP). Taisei Corporation is carrying out verification experiments into reducing electricity demand during peak periods by installing power source equipment, such as solar power generators and storage batteries, etc., and heat source equipment, such as a solar powered heat collection system and latent heat storage tanks, etc., in its research center, which consists of offices and laboratory buildings, while at the same time accumulating experience in operating such equipment and devices. Sumitomo Electric Industries, Ltd. has developed a FEMS (Factory Energy Management System) and is carrying out verification experiments into DR issuance response with the use of redox flow cells.
- Optimizing Regional Power Grid with a Massive Virtual Battery
One of the most unique undertakings of the Yokohama Smart City Project (YSCP) is the storage battery SCADA. SCADA stands for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition and is a device monitoring and control system. The storage battery SCADA uses multiple storage batteries as one massive virtual battery to control battery charging and discharging. This type of system is nearly unprecedented anywhere in the world, and creating the system has made it possible to achieve moderated demand response (DR).
|Name of city||City of Yokohama|
|Area||435.17km2 (as of August 2012)|
|Population||3,703,258 (as of January 2014)|
|Locations for the operational experiments||City of Yokohama as a whole, with a focus on three districts: The Minatomirai 21 district, the Kohoku New Town district, and the Yokohama Green Valley district|
|Area covered by the operational experiments||435.17km2(as of August 2012)|
|Number of households involved in the operational experiments||4,000 houses and apartments for social verifications and technology verifications|
|Number of workplaces involved in the operational experiments||4 office buildings, 3 commercial buildings, 4 apartments, 1 large-scale factory|
|Number of EV/PHV involved in the operational experiments||25 EV for demand response (DR) verifications (including 6 EV for charging/discharging; 2 charging stations with PV/storage batteries)|
|Target for introduction of photovoltaic generation, etc.||Photovoltaic (PV) generation: 27MW; HEMS: 4,000 households; EV: 2,000 vehicles|
About the city
With a population of 3.7 million, Yokohama is a large city even by world standards. Commercial buildings are clustered around the Yokohama Station area and factories concentrate around the bay, while residential areas are situated inland. The diverse topographical areas of the city include the commercial district centering on Minatomirai, with its numerous high-rise buildings on the site of a redeveloped bay area that used to be a shipyard; the large-scale "new town" area, developed between the 1970s and the 1990s and covering about 2,500 ha; and the bay around which large-scale apartment and industrial complexes are concentrated.
Overview of the project
The Yokohama Smart City Project (YSCP) is an effort to develop a model for smart cities by means of cooperation between citizens, private companies, and the municipality, and to export the successful model to Japan and the rest of the world. Large-scale operational experiments are being held with Yokohama, a large, advanced city with a diverse topographical range of districts, as the stage. The hierarchical bundling of energy management systems (EMS) enables energy management at the level of individual EMS and demand-side management at the level of the overall system.
Each of the EMS considers its respective environment in managing energy and making energy use visible. There are a number of different types of EMS: HEMS for houses, HEMS for residential complexes, HEMS for apartments, integrated BEMS, and FEMS, which optimally control factory operation. Integrated BEMS offer group management of BEMS for office buildings and commercial facilities. In addition to these, the CEMS brings together elements including the electric vehicles (EV) for charging and discharging verifications, charging stations, and the SCADA storage batteries that contribute to system stabilization, which will form the nucleus of next-generation transport systems, and offer optimal management of energy at the level of the community as a whole.
By means of optimal linking of the EMS, centering on the CEMS, we are creating infrastructure that will facilitate the large-scale introduction of renewable energies, for example by offsetting the instability of weather-sensitive photovoltaic (PV) generation. At the same time, we are conducting large-scale verifications of demand response (DR). In addition to curbing power demand by providing consumers with incentives to limit their electricity use, thus contributing to the reduction of CO2 at a lower social cost, we are realizing overall optimal energy management while testing DR to make it possible to absorb the surplus power that will be generated by the large-scale introduction of PV generation.
Our aim is to transform a city already provided with social infrastructure into a low-carbon city while maintaining the comfort of its residents. In order to do so, we will introduce a CEMS and develop and operate energy management systems optimized for this specific region. Together with these efforts, we will use PV generation and other forms of renewable energy, and work to change the way that citizens relate to energy. Specifically, we will introduce HEMS for homes, BEMS for offices and commercial buildings, FEMS for factories, and EV and charging stations for the transport sector, and we will curb peak energy demand and conserve energy through their mutual linkage.
Themes of operational experiments
PV generation, storage batteries, CEMS, HEMS, BEMS, FEMS, EV, charging infrastructure, SCADA storage batteries